Active complaints

Showing items 41 to 60 of 69
Complaint number NTB Type
Category 1. Government participation in trade & restrictive practices tolerated by governments
Category 2. Customs and administrative entry procedures
Category 5. Specific limitations
Category 6. Charges on imports
Category 7. Other procedural problems
Category 8. Transport, Clearing and Forwarding
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Date of incident Location
COMESA
EAC
SADC
Reporting country or region
COMESA
EAC
SADC
Status
Actions
NTB-000-745 6.1. Prior import deposits and subsidies 2017-01-19 Zambia: Kazungula Ferry South Africa In process View
Complaint: “SARS received an escalation in January 2017 from Deloitte, regarding a complaint by fuel exporters from South Africa. The complaint is regarding Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA) Circular No. 9 of December 2016, notifying its officers “that all fuel imported from South Africa under preferential arrangements should be subjected to payments of a monetary deposit equivalent to the full customs duty payable.

The modalities of collection of the said deposit will be temporarily suspending both SSA and SDC preferential rates against goods of HS 2710.12.10 and 2710.19.10 until the Origin verification process is finalised”.

SARs is of the view that the collection of the monetary deposits on fuel imported from South Africa is against the spirit of the SADC Protocol on Trade and the WTO, as this treatment applies only to oil imported from South Africa. It pre-supposes that the ZRA is nullifying the SADC Protocol on Trade relating to those specific products without following the proper procedures regarding derogation on infant industries.

SARs has tried several times to get answers from Zambia Revenue Authority (ZRA) to explain their reasoning behind the circular and so far, they have not provided any correspondence to this matter.
 
Progress: 1. On 25th January 2018, Zambia Focal Point reported that the deposit was a temporal measure pending origin inquiry. The inquiry has reached advanced stage and will soon be concluded and stakeholders will be fully advised on the way forward. This is consistent with the provisions of the protocol on trade which allow for collection of such deposits where necessary, while origin verification is underway.

2. During the 15th meeting of the SADC Sub Committee on Trade facilitation held in may 2017, Zambia reported that consultations will be undertaken with relevant authorities and report back.
 
NTB-000-742 3. Technical barriers to trade (TBT)
B1: Prohibitions/restrictions of imports for objectives set out in the TBT agreement
2017-02-20 Uganda: Port Bell Lake port South Africa In process View
Complaint: Verification Agencies (SGS) apply standards that are higher than International accepted standards requiring additional tests and certificates which is of high costs. Additional tests include tests for copper, iron, manganese, lead and coliforms which are expensive tests adding to the costs of doing business. The additional tests last for a week in addition to the export process. The Agency offers Route B or C product registration. Product meant for Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda are tested once a year Route C is a security factory audit for wine export to the abovementioned countries  
Progress: This matter was brought to the attention of the Uganda Focal Points along the margins of the 23rd EAC NTBs forum on 6 May 2017 . Uganda private sector Focal Point reported that consultations had been initiated with the Ministry of Trade , Industry and cooperatives to try and resolve the matter amicably. They will provide feedback in due course .  
NTB-000-737 7.4. Costly procedures 2017-03-01 South Africa In process View
Complaint: KBP company who constructed the new border between Zambia and DRC , about 6 years or so ago pegged crossing fees at $100/truck for the Zambia side and $100 for DRC side. The same charge is levied for the return journey therefore transporters pay total crossing fees of $400/truck for a round trip .Further , parking fees of $25/truck/day are enforced for units that stay over 24 hours in the parking bay. These fees were justified at the beginning as these were to modernize the border. However, the transport rates have tumbled by as much as 40 % and we all now have to look at cutting costs.

Taking into account the number of vehicle crossings daily, the US$ 400 crossing fees per round trip has now become a barrier to trade and is having an impact on growth in trade in the region.
 
Progress: During the 15th meeting of the SADC Sub Committee on Trade facilitation, Zambia reported that the new border had been constructed under a PPP agreement between KBP and Zambian Government and therefore the charges could be part of the contractual conditions governing such contracts. Zambia will undertake further consultations on the issue and report back.  
NTB-000-725 2.6. Additional taxes and other charges 2016-11-01 Angola: Port of Luanda South Africa In process View
Complaint: Angola has Cumbersome and costly documentation and export/import requirements. The following is list of documentation required for a single consignment : i) 2x1 Original Bill of Landing; (ii)Original stamped and signed Commercial invoice; (iii) Original stamped and signed packing list; (iv) Analysis certificates if so required by consignee; (v) Loading Certificate (known as ARC or CNCA) PIP number prior to loading (required to do the pre-inspection) - not compulsory ; (vi) Voluntary pre-shipping control of merchandise (to be done at place of origin by inspector that issued the PIP number) Certificate of Origin( if so required by consignee) transport documents, full load container have to be sealed; (vii) letter from consignee nominating Orey as his forwarder agent; (viii) letter of responsibility from consignee to the carrier accepting full responsibility for demurrages and eventual container damages; (ix) copy of tax payer card of consignee; (x) Ministry of Commerce to issue license upon presentation of the commercial invoice; (xi) Ministry of Commerce to provide DU number, each invoice has different DU number.
The expected time frame is 72 hours (3 days) to get a DU number. CNCA certificate can only be issued upon presentation of the DU number for each specific shipment. Cost to produce DU number is 10 USD per invoice + Process DU (MINCO) FOB value 0.2%.

Costs
There is Fixed delivery and clearance rates in Luanda. Transport costs of 25% as from 15/1/2016, plus other additional chargers. Lab analysis costs 3000 USD per invoice. Analysis are mandatory to any imported edible goods, from water to beverages.

Delivery costs to Luanda per 20" + - 800 USD + 250 USD per night time delivery within city limits. overtime applies all the time due to restriction on delivery during the day due to traffic. Exporters are forced to pay incentives costs to EHO by OREY for DDP shipments. 20" => 150 USD if customs clearance handled by Orey, 40" => 170 USD if customs clearance handled by Orey.

Other fees charged are:
Shipment tracking & dispatch, BL Validation 160 per unit, Container deposit 1000 per unit
Delivery order 25 USD per unit. Port Tax 93.00 per unit, Wharfage 280.00 USD per unit, Tracking fee 100 USD per unit, Clearance transport and petties 350 USD per unit, delivery between Luanda /Soyo 3500.00 USD, return empty 400 USD per unit, transport between Luanda and Cabinda 11000.00 USD per unit, co-ordination 2.5% minimum USD 50.00. Consumption Tax of 5% service costs rendered in Angola. Taxes in all alcohol beverages is high 30% Cocktail 50% Ciders 51%

We believe this costs makes it difficult for investors to do business in Angola, most of them amount to tariff and non-tariff barriers we would like Regulators to review them.
 
Progress: During the 15th meeting of the SADC Sub Committee on Trade facilitation held in may 2017, the Secretariat requested Angola to submit names of its Focal points to enable processing of reported NTBs. Angola reported that : (i) based on their research, the documents are necessary and that these are part of universal documents required for import permit. (ii) South AFrica was also imposing more cumbersome procedures than Angola as evidenced by the fact that the documents she require are the same as those required by Angola therefore this does not constitute NTB.; (iii) the Ministry of Trade is the focal point and there is a national secretariat for SADC through which all SADC Affairs are channeled ; (iv) . Angola was working on establishing the Trade facilitation committee after which focal points will be appointed; (v) she was in the process of revising its commercial legislation that considers trimming the number of import/export documentation; (vi) The ministry would undertake consultations with Ministry of Transport to simply the procedures . 3. In response, South Africa reported that consultations will be made to find out the reasons for the complaint. South Reported that she does not require numerous documentation.  
NTB-000-721 5.5. Import licensing requirements
Policy/Regulatory
2016-06-17 Zimbabwe: Ministry of Industry & Commerce Zambia In process View
Complaint: Zimbabwe introduced surcharges on certain products in violation of the letter and spirit of the COMESA Free Trade Area. Zimbabwe introduced Statutory Instrument 64 of 2016 , controlling the volumes of imports of products exported by Zambia to Zimbabwe Statutory Instrument (SI 64 of 2016),requires that import licenses be obtained from the Ministry of Industry and Commerce before importation of a wide range of products. The instrument is in force and is being implemented  
Progress: 1. On 30 October 2017, Zimbabwe Focal Point reported that Statutory Instrument 64 of 2016 has been consolidated with other Statutory Instruments through SI 122 of 2017 which was gazetted on 22 September 2017. The consolidated SI removed the requirement for import and export licences on some products.
2. On 15th June 2017, Zimbabwe Focal Point reported that SI 64 of 2016 is being reviewed with the aim of removing some products from import licencing.

3. At the 5th Meeting of the COMESA NTB Focal Points held in Nairobi form 23-25 August 2016, Zambia confirmed that the NTB was still pending resolution by Zimbabwe. In response , Zimbabwe reported that Permanent Secretaries of Zimbabwe and Zambia met and agreed that Zimbabwe should communicate all the measures that had been taken and any future measures well on time for the information of trading partners . The parties agreed to meet regularly to share information and discuss mutually beneficial matters of interest to the two countries . Zimbabwe undertook to notify COMESA about the Statutory Instrument 64 by 31 October 2016.
 
NTB-000-720 2.3. Issues related to the rules of origin
Policy/Regulatory
2016-06-07 Sudan: Sudan Customs Authority Egypt In process View
Complaint: Sudan Customs authority has stopped applying the customs exemption on Egyptian Ceramic tiles products despite the fact that the consignments are accompanied by a COMESA certificate of origin .  
Progress: 1. During the 5th meeting of the COMESA NTBs Focal Points held in Nairobi from 23-25 August 2016 Sudan reported that it had established a committee comprising the relevant stakeholders to analyse the problem and inform the Minister within 30days. The matter will be presented to the next bilateral meeting between Egypt and Sudan scheduled in Cairo in October 2016. Further , COMESA Secretariat reported that communication had been sent to Sudan on this issue and Sudan undertook to respond to the communication from COMESA Secretariat once it is received.

2. During the 33rd Meeting of the COMESA Customs and Trade Committee, the Secretariat reported that response was being awaited to a follow up letter was sent to Sudan in September 2016.
 
NTB-000-718 8.8. Issues related to transit 2016-08-02 Mozambique: Beira Port Zambia In process View
Complaint: With reference to Resolved NTB-000-606, the matter is anything but resolved. We continue to experience attacks on our vehicles when using the Munhava Port Access. We have contacted numerous Security Companies in Beira to provide security for the vehicles, all have refused quoting the security situation. We have also been advised by other transporters that placing guards on the vehicles will only draw further action against the vehicles in an act of defiance/retribution. The Police do seem to be prepared to escort the vehicles, but we have no contacts nor tariffs charged. In the past week we have recorded 3 violent incidents.  
Progress: During the 15th meeting of the SADC Sub Committee on Trade facilitation, Mozambique reported that they noted the misbehavior by certain truck drivers sometimes they divert the trucks to inappropriate cites and are reported . Zambia has never reported those wrong doers and perpetrators. Mozambique requested Zambia to clarify the specific experiences. Zambia to provide feedback.  
NTB-000-714 6.7. Other
Policy/Regulatory
2016-06-30 Tanzania: Tanzania Food and Drug Authority Kenya In process View
Complaint: TFDA registers injectables as per pack size and treats each product by itself rendering retaining licences for the product very expensive.  
Progress: At the 21st meeting of the EAC Regional Forum on NTBs, Tanzania undertook to investigate and report back  
NTB-000-697 1.14. Lack of coordination between government institutions 2009-07-16 EAC EAC In process View
Complaint: Lack of coordination among the numerous institutions involved in testing and clearance of goods at the Borders  
Progress: The Ministers decided that:
(i) collaboration among the regulatory agencies be enhanced;
(ii) agencies operate under one stop post as is currently being done between Kenya and Uganda;
(iii) agencies collaborate at the national borders with a view to fast tracking clearance of goods at border entry points; and
(iv Mutual recognition of certificates issued by agencies is ongoing.

The operationalization of one stop border posts in the Partner States will address the NTB.
 
NTB-000-689 8.6. Vehicle standards 2016-03-23 Botswana: All Border posts or entry points into Botswana by road In process View
Complaint: We have a problem in Botswana regarding the determination of Road User Charges at the border posts into Botswana.

The trailer manufacturers states the GVM to be 36 000 kg per unit (see attached vehicle registration papers)

This is the combined weight of the front and back link. However that is not what is reflected on the disc.

What it should say on the disc, is that the carrying capacity:

a) on the front link is 13000 kg.
b) The rear link is 23000kg.
c) The combined weight is thus 36 000kg.

We all know that it is not possible to carry 36000kgs on the front link and 36000kgs on the rear link. The axle configurations do not permit this to say the very least.

The problem arises on entry into Botswana at the border posts. They charge their road user fees per disc weight on the front and rear trailer.

therefore we end up paying for 36000kgs for the front trailer and 36000kgs for the rear trailer, this is 72 000kgs per unit.

To change the SA disc the following procedure will have to be followed.

1) W/bridge
2) Road worthy
3) Registration certificate
4) Certificate of compliance
5) Certificate model
6) Builders certificate
7) Ten days to change details of GVM per trailer.

a) It is very costly
b) it is very time consuming
c) it is not practical
d) It defeats the object of standardization and harmonization in the SADC region.

In this day and age where we are all trying to tighten our belts in order to survive, we can ill afford such additional costs.

This matter requires the urgent intervention of the focal point group in Botswana to address this matter urgently with the Roads Department in Gaborone, all relevant documentation pertaining to this case has been attached.
 
Progress: This issue was discussed during the Botswana / South Africa Bi-National Commission, which was held in Gaborone in November 2017. As per item 3.2.2.1 bullet point number one (1), the Republic of South Africa was to formerly request for a waiver from Botswana on the matter, while South Africa is still sorting out the system that causes the problem. Botswana is still awaiting correspondence from South Africa to that effect. We kindly advice the South African Focal Point to consult the Department of Transport in South Africa for further clarifications.  
NTB-000-677 2.4. Import licensing 2015-09-11 Mozambique: Nyamapanda border post Malawi In process View
Complaint: The importer by the name of GATBRO INTERNATIONAL LTD, P.O. BOX 1433, Lilongwe 3 is being requested by the Mozambican customs official to produce an import license for Doom. The importer is being requested to indicate that he has this license issued by Malawi Ministry of Industry and Trade/Malawi Government. HOwever, Malawi does not import licensing Doom.  
Progress: During the 15th meeting of SADC Trade facilitation Committee held in May 2017, Malawi reported that Malawi laws do not provide for issuance of such permits.

2. Mozambique reported that this is a measure under decree 2009 - Articlle 26. Mozambiique will undertake further consultations and organise a bilateral meeting under the auspices of the Bilateral Agreement signed between the Revenue Authorities of the two countries .
 
NTB-000-676 2.3. Issues related to the rules of origin 2015-07-31 SADC Mauritius In process View
Complaint: The 2 stage transformation needed on clothing is too stringent as it stifles investment in manufacture of clothing due to economic reason and prices. Our company would want to invest in Bio organic fabrics. We invest in stock form India for knitted fabric jersey 100% but with this fabric we have issues to get the SADC certificate of origin as in the rules of origin it does not have 2 value added process. But we are a brand, we produce the garment here in Mauritius we do also the printing at our factory. Therefore there is two process, the cloth is cut here, and then printing.Please can our case be studied as we are a SME factory and for our survival we need to export to Africa. Can this case be study for the rules of origin be modified if the printing process is big part on the value of this product  
Progress: During the 15th meeting of the SADC Subcommittee on Trade facilitation, the Secretariat reported that work is underway to review the Rules of origin. This matter was on the agenda of the next meeting on rules of origin for consideration.  
NTB-000-670 8.6. Vehicle standards 2015-05-08 Tanzania: Tunduma In process View
Complaint: Despite the passing and acceptance of EAC Vehicle Overload Bill of 2012, whereby it states under the Fourth Schedule s.5 (1) (c) - VEHICLE DIMENSIONS, AXLE LOAD CONFIGURATIONS AND VEHICLE COMBINATIONS, that the maximum vehicle combination length permissible is 22 m and which includes and covers the South African designed and developed Interlink combination of 22 m maximum. Tanzania are still insisting on abnormal vehicle permits to be issued to these vehicles on entry into Tanzania at Tunduma Border Post at a cost of US $20 per entry or face heavy penalties including the impounding of vehicles if they are not in posesion of an abnormal permit.

This is in breach of the Bill which has been accepted by all EAC Member Countries including Tanzania and this policy needs to be revoked ASAP.
 
NTB-000-662 8.8. Issues related to transit 2015-02-19 Mozambique: Weighbridge at Matola on the Maputo corridor Zimbabwe In process View
Complaint: Zimbabwean truck drivers are now facing police harassment near the weighbridge at Matola on the Maputo corridor. The police are taking Zimbabwe drivers licence and their passports, supposedly to check the authentication of the driver holding the documents. The driver is released in order to go and off load and is briefed that the police will have an answer for him on his return.

On his return driver is told that the licence is a fake and the driver is to pay a spot fine of ZAR5000.00. It appears that the police are rubbing the metal disc with something, so that certain information is now very faded, and not legible. When the driver produces his international drivers’ licence, to confirm the validity that is taken away by police, who only return it after some hours, with the expiry date is now illegible. The ZAR 5000.00 rand fine is enforced. The language is a convenient barrier, as the police claim not to be able to speak English. All fines in Mozambique seem to be ZAR 5000.00.

Drivers are detained for days until they come up with some sort of cash ranging from ZAR400.00 upwards if they are lucky. This problem is more prevalent during weekends.

Please can we have a stop put to this practice? Defacing a Government document I believe is an offence, and should not be tolerated. Business is challenging enough as it is, without trade barriers being further forced upon the transport industry.
 
Progress: During the 15th meeting of the SADC Sub Committee held in May 2017, the Secretariat reported that the SCCC made general observations on similar issues where receipts are not issued. SCCC recommended that border authorities should put measures in place such as hidden cameras etc to identify culprits. Member States will report on progress regarding the recommendation.  
NTB-000-657 5.15. Other
Policy/Regulatory
2014-12-11 Tanzania: Various State Agencies EAC In process View
Complaint: Numerous monetary charges required by various agencies in the United Republic of Tanzania on exports of dairy products  
Progress: At the 16th EAC NTBs Forum held in Kigali, noted that the SCTIFI urged Partner States to forward charges on dairy products to the EAC Secretariat in order to work modalities to harmonize them. The Secretariat informed the meeting that it was only the Republic of Kenya and Rwanda who had submitted their charges. The meeting recommended the other Partner States to submit their charges by 31st December, 2014. The time frame for addressing this issue is June 2015.  
NTB-000-653 3. Technical barriers to trade (TBT)
B15: Registration requirement for importers for TBT reasons
Policy/Regulatory
2014-12-11 Tanzania: Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority Kenya In process View
Complaint: Requirement by Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority for companies exporting to URT to register, re-label, and retesting of certified EAC products exported by other Partner States Reported in 2003.  
Progress: 1. During the Bilateral meeting between Kenya and Tanzania held on 27th - 31st January, 2018 in Mombasa, Kenya, Tanzania reported that they recognise quality marks on products from other EAC Partner States and committed to ratify the EAC SPS Protocol by June, 2018.
The meeting agreed that TFDA and KEBS conduct a verification mission on 28th February – 2nd March 2018.

2.The Dedicated Session of the Permanent/ Principal/Under Secretaries and Cabinet Secretary of Trade and EAC Affairs held in Kampala to deliberate on how to resolve these NTBs Dedicated Session recommended that the United Republic of Tanzania expedites the Ratification of the SPS Protocol and that the United Republic of Tanzania Mutually recognizes quality marks from other EAC Partner States as provided for in the SPS Protocol.

3. Partner States’ Standards bureaus should give mutual recognition of quality marks issued by competent authorities in Partner States. The TFDA should eliminate its requirement that companies exporting to URT should re-register, re-label and retest their products.

4. The 16th EAC NTBs Forum held in Kigali noted that the 18th meeting of the East African Standards Committees held in 2014 deliberated on the NTB and:

i) urged TBS to adopt all the harmonized EAC Standards to ensure that there are no barriers arising from the Standards; and

ii) requested TFDA to carry out a review on food product safety control systems in other Partner States for the purpose of creating confidence and facilitating trade within the EAC region and report back to the Committee by June 2015.
 
NTB-000-652 2.3. Issues related to the rules of origin
Policy/Regulatory
2014-12-11 Tanzania: Tanzania Revenue Authority Kenya In process View
Complaint: Cigarettes manufactured in Kenya exported to Tanzania required to have a local 75% tobacco  
Progress: 1. During the Extra Ordinary SCTIFI that sat in February, 2018, Kenya and URT agreed that URT will consult and provide feed back by June 2018.


2. The Council at its sitting of 27th May 2016 directed that a bilateral meeting between URT & Kenya be held to resolve this NTB. This matter was discussed during the JCC between URT and Kenya held in December 2016 in Dar-es – Salaam.

A bilateral meeting scheduled to take place in May 2017 however Kenya requests URT to repeal the law to resolve the long outstanding issue.1. During the 29th meeting of the Council Tanzania undertook to repeal the law governing the 75% local tobacco content by June, 2015. Refer latest council decision. Tanzania reported that internal consultations to implement Council decision to repeal the law were in progress. The 18th meeting of the EAC Regional NTBs Forum noted that the URT had agreed and promised to remove the requirement through Finance Bill during the 2015/2016 budget.
 
NTB-000-530 8.1. Government Policy and regulations
Policy/Regulatory
2012-09-10 Zambia: Lusaka South Africa In process View
Complaint: This complaint is registered by FESARTA.
Zambia is requiring all foreign tankers either delivering product to Zambia, or transiting Zambia, to comply with its Standards 371:2008 and 429-4:2008.
Furthermore, it is charging transporters to obtain a permit to certify that the tankers comply with the Standards. This requirement is affecting the free flow of goods into Zambia.

Zambia is requested to recognise the foreign vehicles national certificates of roadworthiness as it is difficult for Transporters operating tankers into Zambia to alter the design of their tankers at short notice.This is against the objectives of trade facilitation, will create monopolies and increase the cost of transport.
 
Progress: 1. On 25 January 2018, Zambia Focal Point advised that the Zambia Bureau of Standards had taken into account the concerns raised. The standard (ZS 371:2008) is currently under revision to address concerns among other matters.
The matter had also been tabled under SADC in an effort to harmonize the standard in the region


2. During the 15th SADC Sub Committee on Trade facilitation held in May 2017, Zambia reported that this NTB had been resolved. However, South Africa Focal Point undertook to verify with complainant and provide feed back on the status.
 
NTB-000-499 8.7. Costly Road user charges /fees 2012-03-14 EAC Tanzania In process View
Complaint: Non-harmonized road user charges / road tolls in EAC Partner States.  
Progress: 1. On 26 October 2018, Focal Point for Tanzania advised that the feedback was being awaited from the Sectoral Committee on Transport , Communication and Metrology .

2. During the Extra Ordinary SCTIFI that sat in February, 2018, This matter was found to be operational in nature and hence was referred to the Sectoral Committee on Tranport, Communication and Meteorology (TCM) for resolution.

3. The EAC, in collaboration with SADC and COMESA, is working on a model for harmonizing the principles for road user charges

4. The 16th EAC Forum on NTBs held in Kigali noted the decision of the 11th TCM Sectoral Council held in June 2014. The Council noted that the study on the harmonization of the road user charges and tolls would commence in the financial year 2014/15. This follows from the adoption by the same Sectoral Council of the EAC Transport Facilitation Study Report which will inform the harmonization process. The time frame given was June 2015
 
NTB-000-479 2.6. Additional taxes and other charges 2011-12-30 Tanzania: Mtwara Tanzania In process View
Complaint: Impose Import Tax from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development in Tanzania on raw seafood coming from Mozambique accompanied by SADC Certificate and all other relevant documents from Mozambican Authorities.  
Progress: 1. On 20th July 2013, SADC secretariat requested Tanzania Focal Point to provide progress report on this issue. Response is being awaited.

2. At the 11th meeting of the SADC Sub -Committee on Trade Facilitation held on 23 May 2013 in Gaborone, Tanzania reported that the matter would be taken to relevant authority.
 
Products: 0306.24: Crabs, even smoked, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, dried, salted or in brine, incl. crabs in shell, cooked by steaming or by boiling in water, 0306.21: Rock lobster and other sea crawfish "Palinurus spp., Panulirus spp. and Jasus spp.", even smoked, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, dried, salted or in brine, incl. in shell, cooked by steaming or by boiling in water, 0307.51: Octopus "Octopus spp.", live, fresh or chilled and 0307.41: Live, fresh or chilled, not smoked, cuttle fish "Sepia officinalis, Rossia macrosoma, Sepiola spp." and squid "Ommastrephes spp., Loligo spp., Nototodarus spp., Sepioteuthis spp.", with or without shell  
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